Sunday, August 7, 2022

Sermon for the Eighth Sunday after Trinity - Mt 7:15-23


Trinity 8

Mt 7:15-23



          Each Sunday you can look on the back of the bulletin insert and see the Scripture readings for the day.  Now, as most of you know, these are not Scripture texts that I have chosen. Instead, they come from the lectionary.  The Latin world lectio means reading, and so the lectionary is simply a list of appropriate Scripture readings that are assigned for each Sunday, and all the feast days of the Church year.  The lectionary is part of the catholic heritage of the Church. At the time of the Reformation, Lutherans simply continued to use what the Church in that area of Europe had already been using for centuries.

          Each Scripture reading is known as a pericope.  This comes from a Greek word that means “to cut out,” which is a very appropriate description because it is a short section of Scripture that has been cut out of the larger whole for consideration that day.

          Since the Scripture reading – the pericope – has been cut out of a larger whole, in order to understand the text more fully we often need to look at what has preceded it, and what follows.  That certainly is the case today.

          Our Gospel lesson today comes from the end of Jesus’ Sermon the Mount.  Near the beginning of the sermon, Jesus says, “Nor do people light a lamp and put it under a basket, but on a stand, and it gives light to all in the house. In the same way, let your light shine before others, so that they may see your good works and give glory to your Father who is in heaven.” As you are probably aware Jesus then provides direction about what this looks like.

          Just before our text, our Lord has said, “So whatever you wish that others would do to you, do also to them, for this is the Law and the Prophets.”  This is the last statement in the sermon that talks about how we are to live.  It is a significant one, because Jesus says that all of the Law and the Prophets in the Old Testament can be summarized in this way. In addition to loving God with all that we are, this is what it is really all about.

          Then, in the verses just before our text, Jesus says, “Enter by the narrow gate. For the gate is wide and the way is easy that leads to destruction, and those who enter by it are many. For the gate is narrow and the way is hard that leads to life, and those who find it are few.” 

In Jesus’ day, the gate was the goal of a journey. You entered into a city through the gate.  Our Lord is talking about the final goal of the Last Day. What he says should catch our attention.  He says the way to judgment and destruction is easy, and that many will go that way.  However, the way that leads to life is hard, and that those who find it are few.

We want everyone to be saved.  Yet we look around us and see a world where it seems as if more and more people are embracing sinful ways that reject God’s will.  We don’t want this.  We seek to work against it by speaking the truth in love. But our Lord shares a reality that we simply have to accept.  He says that those who enter through the narrow gate that leads to life are few.  Now certainly the total number is not few. But when compared to those who follow the way that leads to death, the number is smaller.

In our text then, Jesus warns about something that can lead us away from the way that leads to life.  He says, “Beware of false prophets, who come to you in sheep's clothing but inwardly are ravenous wolves.”  Our Lord tells us that there are false prophets.  The problem is that outwardly they look perfectly acceptable.  Nobody shows up in wearing a sign that says, “False prophet.” But while they look perfectly fine, Jesus warns that inwardly they are those who bring harm.

There will be false prophets. They are a threat that can lead us away from the way that leads to life. So how can we tell?  How can we identify them?  Our Lord answers: “You will recognize them by their fruits. Are grapes gathered from thornbushes, or figs from thistles? So, every healthy tree bears good fruit, but the diseased tree bears bad fruit. A healthy tree cannot bear bad fruit, nor can a diseased tree bear good fruit. Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire. Thus you will recognize them by their fruits.”

Jesus says that you will know them by their fruits – by what they produce.  Since Jesus is talking about prophets, their fruit is their teaching.  And of course, in turn, their teaching leads to results in life.

Our world is filled with false prophets.  There are the false prophets of our culture – those who speak through media, entertainment, and academia.  And there are false prophets in what claims to be the Church.  Remember, the false prophets in the days of the Old Testament were all those who appeared to be true representatives of God.  Yet we hear God say through Jeremiah in the Old Testament reading, “They speak visions of their own minds, not from the mouth of the LORD. They say continually to those who despise the word of the LORD, ‘It shall be well with you’; and to everyone who stubbornly follows his own heart, they say, ‘No disaster shall come upon you.’”

          There is no place where this is more apparent in our world today than in the Sixth Commandment.  The false prophets say that you are free to do anything you want with your body.  Sex outside of marriage is simply part of dating.  Living together when not married is normal.  Homosexuality is just a different kind of love. 

And of course since sex was created by God to produce children – that’s what it often does.  But the false prophets say a baby should not inconvenience your free use of sex, so abortion – the killing of that baby – is your right. In the near future the murder of those babies will begin in Carbondale, just about sixteen miles down the road from us.

Jeremiah says that the false prophets of his day despised the Word of the Lord. The same thing in true in our own.  How do you identify the false prophets?  You test what they have to say against the Word of God – against the inspired Scriptures. When you do so it cannot be more obvious that these all violate God’s will. And then, you can also look at the fruit it produces. You can see the destruction of the family.  You can see the inability of individuals to form lasting, permanent relationships. You can see children deprived of a father or a mother.

These are words of warning to us.  We know that we ourselves are not free from sin when it comes to the Sixth Commandment. Jesus has already said in chapter five, “You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall not commit adultery.’ But I say to you that everyone who looks at a woman with lustful intent has already committed adultery with her in his heart.” We all have lust in our heart.  Then on top of this, are we ourselves engaging in the sins I have just mentioned?  Or are we being influenced by the false prophets as we become accepting of these things, or even approve of them?

In our text, Jesus says, “Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ will enter the kingdom of heaven, but the one who does the will of my Father who is in heaven.” Simply claiming to be a Christian is no guarantee that you will enter through the narrow gate that leads to life.  Instead, Jesus says that we must do the will of the Father who is in heaven.

What is this will?  Jesus announced it when he preached, “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.”  First, it is that we confess our sinfulness - every way it occurs. We confess our sin and seek to turn away from it.  And then, we believe in the One through whom the kingdom of heaven – the reign of God – has entered into our midst.

When the angel announced to Joseph that Mary was pregnant he said, “Joseph, son of David, do not fear to take Mary as your wife, for that which is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. She will bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus, for he will save his people from their sins.”  Jesus Christ, true God and true man, had come to bring God’s reign that frees us from sin, death and the devil.  He did this by dying on the cross as the sacrifice for our sins.  Jesus said, “the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.”

Jesus died for us and was buried.  But on the third day God raised him from the dead.  He defeated death and began the future that will be ours when he returns in glory on the Last Day and raises us up.  All who recognize their sin in repentance and believe in Jesus already have this salvation. At the very beginning of the Sermon on the Mount, in the First Beatitude Jesus said, “Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.” 

The kingdom of heaven – the saving reign of God – is already yours now because you have been baptized.  Your sins have been washed away and God has put his name on you.  He has made you his own.  You are a child of God.

There is great joy and assurance in this.  But there also is a challenge - after all Jesus says, “For the gate is narrow and the way is hard that leads to life, and those who find it are few.”  Jesus describes in our text the challenges posed by false prophets.

So what are we to do?  In the verses just after our text, Jesus brings the Sermon on the Mount to a close.  He says, “Everyone then who hears these words of mine and does them will be like a wise man who built his house on the rock. And the rain fell, and the floods came, and the winds blew and beat on that house, but it did not fall, because it had been founded on the rock.” Then our Lord contrast this with the opposite response: “And everyone who hears these words of mine and does not do them will be like a foolish man who built his house on the sand. And the rain fell, and the floods came, and the winds blew and beat against that house, and it fell, and great was the fall of it.”

          The hearing to which Jesus refers includes understanding and believing.  We listen to Jesus’ words in the Sermon on the Mount and recognize that they are directed to us who believe in the crucified and risen Lord.  Baptized into Christ, hearing his Word, and receiving his true body and blood in the Sacrament we are those who have received God’s saving reign and are sustained in it.  Because this is true, we then seek to live in the ways Jesus describes – ways that show Christ in our life and bring glory to the Father.

          Will we do this perfectly? No.  But it is here that we continue to do the will of the Father. We repent. We confess our sin and turn away from it. And then we turn again in faith to the forgiveness Jesus Christ has won for us.  Strengthened by God’s Spirit, we return to the goal of doing what Jesus has said. Is this an easy way? No. But it is the way that leads to life because it is lived through faith in Jesus.



Sunday, July 24, 2022

Sermon for the Sixth Sunday after Trinity - Rom 6:3-11


Trinity 6

                                                                                       Rom 6:3-11



          Holy Baptism is water included in God’s command and combined with God’s Word. However, the manner in which that water has been applied has varied during the history of the Church. In our text, Paul says that we were buried with Christ through baptism. This language suggests that at least some parts of the Church used immersion as the means of baptism during the first century A.D.

          The first archaeological evidence of baptismal fonts that we possess from the third and fourth centuries, indicates that the Church was not immersing in those locations.  These are fonts that a person could down into for baptism. However, the water only came up to about the waist of the individual and the physical layout of the font indicates that it was not meant to immerse a person. Instead, from church art of the period we know that the person stood in the water of the font – usually naked – and water from the font was poured over the head.  This practice is known as infusion.

          The evangelism work of the Church in northern and northeastern Europe continued on even after a 1000 A.D. However, after about 500 A.D. Christianity was established in large parts of the Mediterranean world and increasingly in Europe.  Adult baptisms became less and less common.  Instead, the babies of Christian parents were being baptized.  During the medieval period the design of baptismal fonts changed into large, deep vessels.  The priest baptized by taking the baby by the feet and plunging it into the water of the font three times. This is how baptism was done at the beginning of the sixteenth century when the Reformation took place. Towards the end of that century, the practice with which we are familiar began to appear as water was poured on the baby instead of immersing it in the water of the font.

          The manner in which water has been applied in Holy Baptism has changed over time.  What has not changed is the reality that the apostle Paul describes in our epistle lesson this morning. Holy Baptism is water included in God’s command and combined with God’s Word.  Through God’s gracious gift he addresses our past, our present, and our future.

          Our text from Romans chapter six begins this morning as Paul writes, “Do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death?” This question – for which the Greek indicates that Paul assumes they agree the answer is yes – picks up on a line of thought that began in the previous chapter.  There, Paul had discussed the source of sin and how it has impacted all people.  He said, “Therefore, just as sin came into the world through one man, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all sinned.”

          The apostle tells us that Adam’s sin brought sin and death to all people.  This morning’s Old Testament lesson puts the mirror of the law right in front of us as we hear the Ten Commandments. We learn what life that follows God’s ordering is supposed to look like, and we know that certainly doesn’t describe us.  God’s word confronts us as sinners.  And in the same way, for many of us, the list of medications we take is a reminder that as we get older we aren’t getting any healthier.  Instead, as sinners, all of us are in the process of dying from the day we are born.

          However, just before our text, Paul declares the good news that God acted in the death of Jesus Christ to make us righteous before him.  He writes, “Therefore, as one trespass led to condemnation for all men, so one act of righteousness leads to justification and life for all men. For as by the one man's disobedience the many were made sinners, so by the one man's obedience the many will be made righteous.”  Christ’s obedient death on the cross means that God considers us to be not guilty – to be justified – and he will declare this on the Last Day.

          But then Paul says something that he doesn’t fully unpack until chapter seven. He adds, “Now the law came in to increase the trespass, but where sin increased, grace abounded all the more, so that, as sin reigned in death, grace also might reign through righteousness leading to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.”  Part of Paul’s explanation about why the law can’t be the way to salvation is that for us as sinful people the law actually becomes something that prompts more sin – it becomes something that sin uses.  Tell someone not to covet or lust, and that’s exactly what the sinful nature focuses upon doing.

          The good news is that even as our sin abounds, God’s grace – his undeserved love in Christ – super abounded.  Because of this, God’s grace ruled through his saving action in Christ to put all things right, and the result for us is eternal life.  God’s grace in Christ overcomes all sin. 

          Yet in the verses just before our text, this raises a potential question. Our sin is overcome by God’s grace in Christ, no matter how great it is.  God’s grace always superabounds to give us forgiveness. So Paul writes: “What shall we say then? Are we to continue in sin that grace may abound?” Is the Christian life one in which I like to sin, and God likes to forgive?”  The apostle answers, “By no means! How can we who died to sin still live in it?”  Paul says it can’t be this way because we have died to sin.  And in our text he sets forth what this means, as he recalls the Romans to something they already know.

The apostle says: “Do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? We were buried therefore with him by baptism into death, in order that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might walk in newness of life.”  Through the water of Holy Baptism you shared in Jesus’ saving death for you.  You were buried with Christ into death.  Jesus Christ’s sacrificial death won the forgiveness of sins.  Baptism is the means by which you have shared in Christ’s death and receive the forgiveness he won for you.  How do you know that you are forgiven and justified before God?  You have been baptized!

But notice, that in our text, Paul does not only talk about death. He affirms that we have been baptized into Christ’s death “in order that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, we too might walk in newness of life.”  Jesus Christ died on the cross and was buried.  But on the third day, God raised him from the dead.  We have been baptized into the death of the risen Lord so that we can walk in newness of life – life that pleases God.  Baptism is not only about the death of Jesus. It is also about what the resurrection of Jesus means for us.

The key for understanding why this is so is found in chapter eight when Paul says, “If the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through his Spirit who dwells in you.”  It was the Spirit of God who raised Jesus from the dead.  As Paul tells Titus, in baptism we received “the washing of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit.”  Through baptism we have shared in Jesus’ saving death and have also been given new life by the Spirit who raised Jesus.  The power that raised Jesus – the resurrection power of Christ – is now at work in us enabling us to live according to God’s will.

That is why Paul says in our text, “We know that Christ, being raised from the dead, will never die again; death no longer has dominion over him. For the death he died he died to sin, once for all, but the life he lives he lives to God. So you also must consider yourselves dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus.”  Christ died to sin in order to win us forgiveness. He rose from the dead by the power of the Spirit to defeat death.

We have shared in Christ’s death and so are forgiven.  We have received new life by the Spirit’s work in baptism, and by his power – the power that raised Jesus from the dead – we are enabled to live to God.  We live in the ways God intended. God gives us this ability, and that is why Paul says immediately after our text, “Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal body, to make you obey its passions. Do not present your members to sin as instruments for unrighteousness, but present yourselves to God as those who have been brought from death to life, and your members to God as instruments for righteousness.”

Paul is clear that through baptism the Spirit provides this ability. But at the same time, we also must consider the question: Why then does Paul feel the need to talk about it and exhort Christians to live in this way?  The reason is that while we are a new creation in Christ, we have not yet fully been freed from the old Adam.  The sinful nature is still present. There are times when we let sin reign in our mortal bodies.  There are time when we obey its passions. We present our members to sin as instruments for unrighteousness.

When this happens, we do what Christians do: we repent. We confess our sin. We return in faith to what God has done for us in baptism. In the fourth question about Holy Baptism in the Small Catechism, Martin Luther asks, “What does such baptizing with water indicate?”  We must understand that when says “such baptizing with water” he is referring to the practice of his day that I mentioned earlier, in which the baby was plunged down into the water of the font and then brought back out of it three times.

He answers the question by writing, “It indicates that the Old Adam in us should by daily contrition and repentance be drowned and die with all sins and evil desires, and that a new man should daily emerge and arise to live before God in righteousness and purity forever.”  We return to our baptism as through confession of sin and repentance we drown the Old Adam with his sin and evil desires. Confession and repentance put to death the Old Adam. 

We return in faith to the promise God has made that through baptism our sins are forgiven, and we have received the Holy Spirit.  The Spirit who raised Jesus from the dead is now at work in us.  He helps us to arise and live before God in righteousness and purity – in ways that are true to God’s will and please him.

You will note that Luther says “daily contrition.” The struggle against sin is an ongoing one. Through the work of the Spirit do we have success? Do we present our members to God as instruments for righteousness?  Yes, absolutely!  We make decisions of self-sacrifice and service toward others.  We choose to keep our mouth shut, instead of responding in anger or spreading gossip. But we never do this perfectly and, and indeed the more the Spirit is at work in us the more we also recognize the sin that is present.  Therefore we must return to our baptism every day. Luther says in the Large Catechism, “Therefore let all Christians regard their baptism as the daily garment that they are to wear all the time.  Every day they should be found in faith and with its fruits, suppressing the old man and growing up in the new.”

This we do in the confidence that our baptism provides the guarantee that the ultimate victory will be ours. After all, we have been baptized into the death of the risen Lord.  Because of baptism, the Spirit who raised Jesus from the dead is at work in us. Therefore Paul says in our text, “For if we have been united with him in a death like his, we shall certainly be united with him in a resurrection like his.”  Or as he adds a little later, “Now if we have died with Christ, we believe that we will also live with him. We know that Christ, being raised from the dead, will never die again; death no longer has dominion over him.”

Jesus Christ has defeated death in his resurrection.  The risen and exalted Lord will return in glory on the Last Day.  He will raise and transform our bodies to be like his. Freed completely from sin and death, we will live with our Lord in the renewed creation, and there will never be need for contrition or repentance again.





Saturday, July 23, 2022

Mark's thoughts: Martin Chemnitz's pious fantasy about the history of Confirmation

While Martin Bucer may be called the father of Lutheran confirmation because he was the first to provide a rite of confirmation for a Lutheran church, Martin Chemnitz was in fact the most important figure in the history Lutheran confirmation.  This is true for two reasons.  First, in his Examination of the Council of Trent, Chemnitz “demonstrated” that confirmation was in fact a true and apostolic practice that should be retained for the good of the Church, once false accretions were eliminated. Second, he described in the Examination of the Council of Trent what an evangelical confirmation was, and then along with Jacob Andraeae he produced a rite of confirmation in the Braunschweig-Wolfenb├╝ttel Church Order of 1569 which is “the most complete confirmation rite that has come down to us from the sixteenth century.”[1] Chemnitz’s authority among Lutherans secured confirmation’s position moving forward.


Chemnitz wrote Part II of the Examination, which treats confirmation, in 1566.[2]  In his consideration, Chemnitz hammers home the point that what is attributed to confirmation minimizes baptism.[3] As expected, he emphasizes that confirmation lacks divine command and promise.[4]  He criticizes the Roman practice, because while Scripture and church fathers speak about laying on of hands, the Romans define the material of confirmation to be chrism.[5]  He is aware that church fathers such as Tertullian and Cyprian said the Spirit is given in baptism through hand laying.  In general, he deals with this and other patristic witnesses that ascribe the giving of the Spirit to hand laying or anointing by noting that Scripture does not teach this and that the rule of Augustine should be observed, namely: “The authority of the statements of the fathers ought to be not greater than the quality of the arguments which they bring forward from the canonical Scriptures.”[6] Specifically he maintains that Tertullian and Cyprian said this because of Montanus’ influence.[7]


Chemnitz is well aware that originally, the rite of baptism consisted of a continuous ceremony that included hand laying and anointing.[8]  He argues: “Afterward, in order that the number of sacraments might be increased, they separated it from the act of Baptism. And in order that a separate sacrament might be made of it, they willed that some measure of time should lie between them.”[9]  However, the separation was never an intentional act, but was instead an accident of practice that then produced a theology to explain it. In addition, church leaders repeatedly admonished that there should be as little delay as possible (see pages 3-10 of “The Rite of Confirmation: Teaching Lutherans to be Lutheran for Life?”).[10]  


Chemnitz is convinced that there was originally a practice that we can identify as “confirmation,” and that over time “traditions that are useless, superstitious, and in conflict with Scripture” were added.[11]  He states that originally, when those who had been baptized as infants “arrived at the years of discretion” (ad annos discretionis), they were instructed, and when they displayed comprehension, they were brought to the bishop and the church for examination, exhortation, and public prayer accompanied by the laying on of hands.[12]


Yet the evidence Chemnitz cites in support of this claim does not withstand scrutiny.  He points to the examination of doctrine and laying on of hands in Acts 19:1-7, but this hardly provides a typical example of church practice.[13]  He cites texts about the church’s exhortation to persevere in true doctrine (Acts 14:22; 15:30-32; 18:11), but these are nothing more than general statements. They do not in any way indicate the practice just described.[14] Chemnitz refers to the examination and profession of faith described in Canon 7 of the Council of Laodicea and Canon 8 of the Council of Arles, but he himself has just noted earlier that these describe the process used in the reception of heretics and schismatics and not that of baptized Christians.[15]


He cites the Council of Orleans and its reference to a “ripe age” (perfectatem aetatem) to support the idea that confirmands were examined; however, earlier he used the text of the Council to condemn confirmation since it says that no one will be a Christian unless he had been anointed in confirmation by the bishop. More importantly, the text that refers to a “ripe age” says nothing about examination.[16] Finally he cites Pseudo-Dionysius 7:11 to support his argument, but this says nothing more than that baptized children can and should receive instruction.


Because a church practice called “confirmation” existed at the start of the sixteenth century that was plagued with theological problems, Chemnitz assumes that this practice must have been present in a pure form at the beginning of the of the Church.  Nothing better illustrates this than the way that Chemnitz deals with Jerome, Against the Luciferians, 9, which states: “I do not deny that it is the practice of the Churches in the case of those who living far from the greater towns have been baptized by presbyters and deacons, for the bishop to visit them, and by the laying on of hands to invoke the Holy Ghost upon them.”[17] Chemnitz comments on this:

It was without a doubt a good and useful custom for retaining and preserving purity of doctrine and faith that the bishop himself interrogated and examined those who had been baptized by others concerning the doctrine and faith, and when he understood that they believed rightly and had been baptized legitimately, he confirmed them with the Word, and with the laying on of hands invoked the Holy Spirit on them in order that they might persevere in the faith.”[18]
Yet none of this is stated by Jerome (the entire point is about bishops giving the Spirit).  This is all a product of Chemnitz’s own mind about “what must have happened.”

Chemnitz’s version of “confirmation” is a pious fantasy that never existed. He is by no means alone in this view among sixteenth century writers (Martin Bucer and Philip Melanchthon had similar positions). However, Chemnitz's authority carried great weight among Lutherans. It is this deeply flawed account of the “true history” of confirmation that legitimized it for Lutherans in the generations to come.


This is an excerpt from the paper, “The Rite of Confirmation: Teaching Lutherans to be Lutheran for Life?” that considers the history and practice of confirmation in the Lutheran church.


[1] Frank W. Kloss, Confirmation and First Communion: A Study Book (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1968), 65.

[2] Paul Turner, The Meaning and Practice of Confirmation: Perspectives from a Sixteenth-Century Controversy (New York: Peter Lang, 1987), 57, nt. 68.

[3] Martin Chemnitz, Examination of the Council of Trent: Part II (tr. Fred Kramer; St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1978), 183, 185, 196.

[4] Examination of the Council of Trent: Part II, 187, 194.

[5] Examination of the Council of Trent: Part II, 205-206.

[6] Examination of the Council of Trent: Part II, 205.

[7] Examination of the Council of Trent: Part II, 199.  This is a very weak argument, since “On Baptism” derives from Tertullian’s pre-Montanist stage, and the accusation of Cyprian with Montanism is unique to Chemnitz.  Bellarmine rightly critiques Chemnitz on this point (Turner, The Meaning and Practice of Confirmation, 248).

[8] Examination of the Council of Trent: Part II, 206, 208.  Chemnitz does not believe that these were all objectionable because, “the efficacy of Baptism is signed and proclaimed by these superadded signs” (200).

[9] Examination of the Council of Trent: Part II, 207.

[11] Examination of the Council of Trent: Part II, 212.

[12] Examination of the Council of Trent: Part II, 212. Latin text cited from Martin Chemnitz, Examen Concilii Tridentini (ed. Preuss; Berlin: Gust. Schlawitz, 1861), 297 (hereafter referred to as Preuss).

[13] Examination of the Council of Trent: Part II, 212-213

[14] Examination of the Council of Trent: Part II, 213.

[15] Examination of the Council of Trent: Part II, 213; see 208.

[16] Examination of the Council of Trent: Part II, 219; Preuss 297. See, Examination of the Council of Trent: Part II, 184.  The text itself is not from the Council of Orleans as cited by Gratian. Instead: “The first half of this canon appears in the Carolingian Herardi Turonensis Capitula (858) as cap. 75. The end of the canon, which makes confirmation constitutive of being a Christian, is added several centuries later in Ivonis Carnontensis Decretum (1117), 1:254, where the canon is attributed to the Council of Orleans” (Turner, The Meaning and Practice of Confirmation, 262-263). Turner notes that Chemnitz, Calvin, and Bellarmine all refer to it as cited by Gratian (263).

[17] NPNF2, 6:324; A Select Library of the Christian Church: Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers. Series 2. ed. Philip Shaff; 14 vols. New York: The Christian Literature Series, 1890-99; repr, Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1952, 1961.

[18] Examination of the Council of Trent: Part II, 210.